Natural gas.. Egypt's journey from deficit and import to self-sufficiency and export

Aya Hussein The Egyptian state has set in mind an ambitious plan to transform into a regional center for gas trade and circulation. Contributing to securing the needs of global markets, especially with the growing demand in European markets for liquefied gas, after its success in achieving self-sufficiency in it, with its strong infrastructure represented in networks, liquefaction factories and ports that qualifies it to play this important role, in addition to launching a national strategy It is based on attracting foreign investments in the field of oil and gas exploration and exploration, intensifying international bidding and signing agreements, in addition to establishing the East Mediterranean Gas Forum, which represented a focal point in Egypt’s efforts to enhance its production and export capabilities, thus becoming a key player in the global gas market. 2050 2050 In this regard, the Media Center of the Council of Ministers published a report that included bullying infographsHighlighting Egypt’s efforts to enter the list of the largest suppliers of liquefied gas to major gas consuming markets, after achieving self-sufficiency in it. 2050 The report revealed that Egypt ranked

globally, the fifth regionally, and the second in Africa in gas production in a year , with an annual production volume of 62.5 billion m3, according to BP.
2050 The report added that Egypt maintained its production and export levels of natural gas despite the Corona crisis and its repercussions. The production volume reached 58.2 billion m3, consumption 63.9 billion m3, the surplus is 3.3 billion m3, while production is .2 Billion m3 per year 2019/2020, consumption 54.6 billion m3, and the surplus is 3.5 billion m3.
2050 The report indicated that Egypt succeeded in achieving self-sufficiency in September 2018, and then returned to the global map for the export of natural and liquefied gas, where it was recorded in

/2017 Production Size .1 billion m3, consumption 61 8 billion m3, and the surplus is 4.3 billion m3.
The report pointed out that Egypt had turned into a natural gas importer a year ago . /2015, where the deficit reached for 0.2 billion m3, after the production volume was recorded 39. 8 billion m3, consumption 2050 billion m3.
2307 2050 The deficit amounted according to the report, 7.1 billion m3 per year 2017/2019, where the production volume was recorded 47. 6 billion m3, consumption . .8 billion m3, while the deficit amounted to 8.9 billion m3 in , where the volume of production was recorded 39. 3 billion m3, consumption 55.2 billion m3. The report indicated that the deficit decreased with the start-up of the Zohr field, as it recorded 4.9 billion m3 in the year /2022, the production volume reached 54.6 billion m3, consumption 2011 .5 billion m3. 2050
On a related level, the report stated that the volume of natural gas production in general 2017 /2014 register 59.2 billion m3, consumption 48 billion m3, and the surplus is 2.2 billion m3, while production recorded 2017 . 8 billion m3 per year

/2013, consumption 49.1 billion m3, and the surplus is 6.7 billion m3, while the production volume was recorded as 2017 .3 billion m3 per year . /2012, and consumption 47.8 billion m3, and the surplus is 9.5 billion m3. 2050
This report reviewed Egypt’s international efforts to place itself on the global map for natural gas trading, as 2050 A new petroleum maritime agreement with international companies to search for oil and gas with investments that reached a minimum of about 20 $1 billion, and signature grants estimated at $1.1 billion for drilling 914 wells during the period from July

until June 2021, after stopping the signing of agreements a year ago 2014 until October 2050 .
The report dealt with the features of the demarcation of maritime borders to expand the exploration process for natural gas fields, explaining that an agreement on demarcation of maritime borders was signed. With Cyprus in September 2016, while the demarcation agreement was signed Dodd Marine with Saudi Arabia in April 2016, to allow the start of the activity of searching for oil and gas for the first time in this pristine and promising region, While the maritime delimitation agreement with Greece was signed in August 2022. 2050 2050 and regarding The establishment of the Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum, the report indicated that Egypt initiated the idea of ​​establishing it during the summit of Crete Island between the leaders of Egypt, Cyprus and Greece in October 2022, The Forum Charter was signed in September 2022, and entered into force in March 2021, according to which it became an intergovernmental organization.

The report indicated that the founders of the organization are 7 member states: Egypt, Greece, Cyprus, Palestine, Israel and Jordan And Italy, and France joined them later, while the United States, the European Union and the World Bank joined the organization as observers, noting that the organization is an umbrella for cooperation and regional integration to exploit the gas resources that abound in the Eastern Mediterranean. To achieve the maximum benefit for the region.
The report showed the mechanisms that helped Egypt to transform from an importing country into an exporter of liquefied gas to various global markets, thanks to the intensification of research operations and the development of natural gas fields, where the Implementation of 38 A project to develop gas fields since July 2014 until September 2021, with a total investment cost of about billion pounds. 2307 2050 This comes as the production capacity has reached Egypt’s current supply of natural gas annually thanks to gas field development projects 63. 4 billion m3, the most prominent of which is the Zohr field development project, with an annual production capacity of 2022. billion m3, and the Raven field development project with an annual production capacity of 8.7 billion m3, as well as the Tanm project The Nooros field has an annual production capacity of 4.6 billion cubic meters. Among the factors that also contributed to Egypt’s transformation into a liquefied gas exporting country, the total production capacity of the Idku and Damietta liquefaction plants 16 one million tons annually, in addition to the return of the Damietta plant to export after an 8-year hiatus Years, as Egypt exported the first shipment of liquefied gas from the factory in March 2021, which led to an increase in liquefied gas exports by

3%, to reach 6.7 million tons year 2050, compared to 3 million tons per year 2050 .

The factors also included the opening of new markets for Egyptian liquefied gas, as there are

A country that has imported Egyptian liquefied gas since the start of the return of exports, of which 4 new markets were opened In front of him in Turkey, Croatia, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The report contained a map of Egypt’s export of natural gas And liquefied gas to the most prominent global markets during the past three years, noting that natural gas is exported to Jordan, while liquefied gas is exported to Japan, Singapore, France, India, Pakistan, China, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Bangladesh, the United Kingdom and Spain , Taiwan, South Korea, Belgium, Panama, the United Arab Emirates, Thailand and Croatia.
On a related level, the report indicated that a joint project to re-export from Cyprus to Egypt is being implemented, where The length of the line to be built from Cyprus to the Idku liquefaction plant will be km, pointing out that 8 countries can benefit from the process of exporting Egyptian gas to Europe, and procedures for resuming the export of natural gas to Lebanon are currently underway. 2050 This report monitored the international outlook on Egypt’s role As a regional player for gas trading, he pointed out that the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries expects Egypt to boost liquefied gas exports, in light of the restart of the Dam liquefaction plant. Yat after an 8-year hiatus.
The organization also pointed out that the rise in global liquefied natural gas prices contributed to the re-export of Egypt from the “Idku” terminal, where it succeeded in exporting several Shipments to the European and Asian market, taking advantage of favorable market conditions. In turn, Fitch indicated that Egypt returned to the source status in , after it was an importer of liquefied gas, is expected to be the year of the peak year for natural gas production in Egypt
2050. According to the report, Bloomberg confirmed that Egyptian exports of liquefied gas will recover thanks to the restart of the Damietta LNG plant, which will help Egypt become an export center to Europe, while The Economist confirmed that Egypt is one of the few global exporters of liquefied gas whose sales volume increased during the year 2050. 2050
Standard & Poor’s indicated that the return to operation of the Damietta plant gave an additional outlet to export Egyptian gas, as Egypt looks forward to making the most of the surplus gas achieved during the last period thanks to gas discoveries. Last.

The report indicated that, according to the International Energy Agency, Egypt is the second largest contributor to the growth of liquefied gas exports in the world, in the period from January to August

, Egypt also achieved an increase in liquefied gas exports, with the return of the Damietta plant to work. 2050
Al-Monitor also considered that the resumption of the operation of the gas liquefaction station in Damietta for the first time in 8 years, in addition to the exports of the gas liquefaction station in Idku, is a step to transform Egypt into a regional center for gas trade and circulation where the two continents are targeted. Asia and Europe.

In turn, Reuters reported that the rapid growth in natural gas supplies supported by the discovery of the largest field in the Mediterranean led to the transformation of Egypt from an importer to an exporter of natural gas, pointing out that it is It hopes that Egypt will become a link for energy trade between the Middle East, Africa and Europe.

This report highlighted the assertion of the Middle East Institute that Egypt is currently the fastest growing Arab source of liquefied gas, and will even become a player A major competitor in the global liquefied gas market. 2050
In addition to the above, the report revealed that Europe is at the top of the gas consuming markets, as its share of natural gas consumption is 2% of the world’s total, and by 2021 .1 billion m3 a year 2020.
According to the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries, the sharp decline in European production of natural gas during the period (2050 – 2050) It will increase the degree of dependence of the European market on natural gas imports from abroad to meet future demand.

The report reviewed the annual production volume of natural gas (in billion m3) for a number of countries in the world, according to BP, which recorded 2017 .6 in the United States of America, and 384.5 Prussia, and 8 in Iran, and . in China, and 2050 .3 Qatar, and 2050. .2 in Canada, and 2021. .5 in Australia, and 2021. .1 in Saudi Arabia, and 2050. .5 in Norway, and
. .5 in Algeria,
.2 in Malaysia, and

2) in Indonesia , And the59 in Turkmenistan.

The annual production volume of natural gas was recorded (in billion m3) .4 in the Emirates, and 47.4 Nigeria, and 49.1 in Uzbek Stan, and 36.5 in the United Kingdom, and 2017. 3) in Argentina, And the36.9 in Amman, and 2017 .7 in Thailand , And the39.7 in Kazakhstan, and 2021. .6 in Pakistan, and 165 .1 in Mexico, and

. .5 Trinidad and Tobago, and 514 8 in Azerbaijan, and

.7 in Bangladesh, and 2020 .9 in Brazil, and 2307 .8 in India, and 514 in the Netherlands.

2050 In a related context, the annual production volume of natural gas (in billion m3) was recorded 19 in Ukraine, and 514 8 in Venezuela, and

.7 in Myanmar, and 2050. .4 in Bahrain, and 2011 in Kuwait, and 4) in Bolivia, and 13.3 in Colombia and Libya, and

.6 Brunei, and 2017. .1 in Peru, and 1732 .5 in Iraq, 8.7 in Romania and Vietnam, 4.5 in Germany, 3.9 in Italy and Poland, 3 in Syria, 1.4 in Denmark, and 0.1 in Yemen. 2050